In case of dead animals, the specimens shluld be taken soon after seath to avoid the chances of invasion of tissues by putrefactive bacteria rendering the specimens unsuitable for examination. Generous blocks of fresh tissues such as liver, spleen, kidneys, lymph nodes, lungs and brain may be forwarded refrigerated but not frozen in wide mouth sterile bottles, when the examination is to be carried out within a short period after collection. While forwarding material in this preservative, it would be better to send larger pieces of which helminth infection can be diagnosed using clear tape tissues, so that if necessary, cultures may be attempted from their central areas where the glycerine penetration has been the least.
Liquid material such as heart blood, cerebrospinal fluid and inflammatory exudates may be taken either on sterile swabs, sealed in pipettes or collected in tubes or bottles with strict aseptic precautions.
The surface of the organ should be well seared with a hot spatula and a sterile syringe and needle or pipette inserted into it for drawing the material. If the peritoneal fluid is required, an area on the abdominal wall is seared thoroughly and a sterile knife is used for holding the cavity open and sterile pipettes for drawing the fluid.
For taking swabs of the contents of a closed abscess in a living animal, clip the hair from the area and which helminth infection can be diagnosed using clear tape it with tincture of iodine.
Open the abscess with a sterile scalpel and take swabs from the wall as well as from the contents of the abscess and keep the swabs in sterile tubes.
To collect wound discharge, the wound should be thoroughly cleaned with warm water and soap, and sterile non-antiseptic cotton wool or gauze dressing applied. The material should be collected after about 24 hours by inserting a sterile swab underneath the dressing.
For bacteriological examination of the intestinal flora, ligate about 6 inches of the bowel at both ends and forward the loop unopened under refrigeration. If there are abnormal contents in the uterus, a small segment is isolated between ligatures and retained unopened for bacteriological examination. While it is desirable that the specimen for immunological study be refrigerated in transportation, serum for agglutination and complement fixation test may be preserved with 0.
In swine, organisms are not present in blood, so swabs should be taken from exudates and the cut surface of hemorrhagic lymph nodes. Flame fixed blood smears of cattle and sheep. From subcutaneous swelling in horses, swine and dogs. Swabs of blood from ear vein for cultural examination from dead animals. It is not advisable to open the carcass suspected for anthrax in the field. If opened, it should be properly disposed by burning.
Blackleg Black Quater : Impression smears from the affected muscle tissue; exudate from lesions; pieces of affected muscles on ice. Tetanus: Material from wound site isolation is not usually attempted Bacillary Haemoglobinuria: Affected liver tissue.
Botulism: Suspected food, meat, forage and urine. Enterotoxaemia, Lamb Dysentery: Intestinal pieces with contents inside tied with thread or contents of small intestine with and without chloroform separately on ice, kidney, urine.
Campylobacteriosis: Prepeutial washings, semen, foetal stomach contents, cervicovaginal mucus sample should reach the laboratory within 6 hours of collection under refrigeration or at room temperature in transport media. Brucellosis: Paired sera samples, blood and abomasal contents of aborted foetus, placenta with cotyledons, vaginal swabs in PBS, separate bottle on ice, whole foetus if small on ice.
For ABR milk is used avoiding colustrum and milk from drying off animals or those suffering from mastitis.
The contemporary methods of ascariasis and enterobiasis diagnosis
Milk, serum, vaginal mucous etc. Haemorrhagic Septicemia: From sick animals fixed smears from blood and throat swelling and from dead animals, smears from heart blood and liver. Glanders: Exudate from skin and ung lesions in vials on ice. Impression smears from exudate duly fixed, tissue containing early nodules, pus from ulcers.
A case study: the Iron Gates
Salmonella Sp. Paired sera samples. After collection, ectoparasites and intermediate hosts can be sent as such or after fixation.
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The chloroform is allowed to settle and the top solution is poured constituting the chloroform formalin mixture which retains the natural colour of ticks, if dropped alive. Fleas and lice are collected on a sheet of paper either by combing or with the help of a camel hair brush moistened with xylene.
Dead small birds which helminth infection can be diagnosed using clear tape animals can be transported as which helminth infection can be diagnosed using clear tape in securely tied polythene bags. Tratament limbrici ectoparasites can also be collected by dipping and washing the birds in a pail with water containing small amount of detergent. The parasites are collected with the hpv warts how to remove of a strainer.
Common blood protozoan parasites can be visualized in thin blood smears. For demonstration of microfilariae thick blood smears, whole blood or hemolysed with acetic acid centrifuged blood is desirable. The trophozoite forms of intestinal protozoa seldom survive in dead animal and at room temperature. Faeces or intestinal contents as such or which helminth infection can be diagnosed using clear tape normal saline must, therefore, be examined immediately after collection or retained at body temperature till examined.
Protozoan cysts are comparatively resistant and can be identified in faeces for days. Refrigeration further preserves them. The sample of faeces to which helminth infection can be diagnosed using clear tape cultured must be free from earthy or bedding contamination otherwise it may be heavily infected with free living nematodes ot their larvae. Theileriosis: 1 Biopsy smears from swollen lymph nodes from early stages of disease fixed with methanol. Blood smears fixed in methanol or alcohol.
Two to three blood smears from each case. Babesiosis: Thin blood smears from early stages of disease fixed with methanol. Anaplasmosis: Thin blood smears from ear vein fixed with methanol.
Serological Samples: Paired samples one taken at the onset of the disease and another taken weeks later aree desirable. For anaplasmosis it should be frozen or preserved with 0. In other cases, it may be preserved with sodium merthiolate or carbolic acid Immunoflourescense Samples: Serum as such and freshly collected, refrigerated or frozen tissue.
Biopsy Samples: 1. Bone marrow smears for hemopoietic disorders. Lymph nodes for lymphosarcoma whole or part 3.
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Liver biopsies for histopathology or chemical estimation 4. Blood Samples: 1. Blood smears for hemopoietic disorders or blood infections shluld be fixed in methyl alcohol, dried and sent. Blood samples for haematology-Anticoagulants viz.
Anticoagulants for Blood: a.
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Heparin i. Oxalate phenol glycerine OCG solution-1 part to 2 parts of blood erythrocytes. Blood is transported in chilled condition, but never frozen for both clinical examination as well as virus isolation. Where bacterial isolation is not required, antibiotics may be added. Cerebrospinal Fluid: Examination soon after collection is desirable. For leucocytes EDTA and for glucose estimation sodium fluoride is added as a preservative.
Serous Cavity Fluid: No preservative is required and used for bacteriological or cytological examination. Sputum: No preservative is required and is used for bacteriological or parasitological examination.