Rectal cancer rates of survival,

rectal cancer rates of survival

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Inoperable rectal tumour, no metastases: A   radio-chemotherapy with a favourable response surgery B   radio-chemotherapy with a non-favourable rectal cancer rates of survival chemotherapy Operable rectal tumour, with metastases: radical surgery of the tumour with resection of the hepatic or lung metastasis radio-chemotherapy radio-chemotherapy followed by surgical treatment.

Non-operable rectal tumour with metastases: chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We must remember that the rectum is a fix organ, that represents an advantage for the irradiation process.

Воссоздание прошлого отнимет века, но по завершении Человек вновь обретет почти все из того, что он некогда утратил. Но возможно ли восстановить действительно. Джезерак сомневался.

The rectal cancer rates of survival irradiation has the advantage of preventing the excessive irradiation of other cavity organs, as in the case of the postoperative irradiation, when the small bowel loops drop in the pelvis. This protocol has been established starting from the actual knowledge regarding the genetics of rectal cancer, and also the studies of fundamental and clinical research which analyzed the response of the rectal cancer to different treatment methods.

Actual problems regarding the implementation of the treatment protocol in rectal cancer

The oncogenesis rectal cancer rates of survival determined by the alternation of the cellular cycle, and initiates the appearance of angiogenesis. Citokines such as the fibroblastic growth factor, the endothelial growth factor, angiogenin and interleukin 8 mediate and are the promoters of angiogenesis.

Those are produced by the tumor cells, T lymphocytes and by other stromal cells.

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Also, the macrophages and the tumor cells produce urokinase plasminogen activatorwhich favours angiogenesis. The tumour angiogenesis is responsible for the tumour behaviour, lymphatic metastases and the distant metastases.

rectal cancer rates of survival

The genetic studies have shown that mutations in the p53 suppressor gene may determine the cell production of inhibitors of the apoptosis, which make the tumour cells resistant to chemo-radiotherapy. The evaluation of the status of the p53 gene might allow the appreciation of the tumour aggressiveness in case of a partially located lesion, the response to PCT 5FUthe survival after curative resection, and of the prognostic 2.

It is a known fact that the tissue response to irradiation depends of: The cellular apoptosis through disruptions at the DNA level and through the production of free oxygen radicals.

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The cellular destructions that affect tumour proliferation. The fibrosis and the densification of the rectal wall. The obliterating arteritis through hyalinisation process.

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The blockage of the cells which block the apoptosis. The destruction of the micro-angiogenesis net­work.

  1. У него сложилось впечатление, что робот решил пока просто наблюдать, анализировать и делать собственные выводы, не предпринимая никаких самостоятельных действий до тех пор, пока время, по его мнению, не созрело.

It must be remembered that hypoxia decreases the destruction of the tumour cells. The different response to radiotherapy is conditioned by several factors: The tumour dimensions The cellular phenotype The tumour angiogenesis. The type of the peri-tumour inflammatory infiltrate - the tumours with mixt infiltrate have a better prognosis.

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The intra-tumour microvascular density the greatest number of vascular lumen without a muscular wall in an objective field 40X. The response to radio-chemotherapy may be appreciated: Macroscopic: The decrease of the tumour dimensions Conversions to a more inferior stage.

The post-radiotherapy regression reaction was quantified by Bazzetti inwho established 5 degrees of regression of the rectal tumour after radiotherapy.

R5 - the absence of the regression. A rectal cancer rates of survival response to R2 radiotherapy almost complete regression was achieved in nearly rectal cancer rates of survival Therefore, we can say that the radiotherapy response was correlated directly rectal cancer rates of survival the initial stage of the disease, being favourable for patients in stage II of evolution and weak for those in stage III 3.

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Under these conditions, a very important problem is the identification of the degree of response to radiotherapy of the tumour and also to the metastases potential, as long-term rectal cancer rates of survival lasts approximately 4 weeks, to which one may add around a minimum of weeks until the moment in which the patient will be operated on, a total rectal cancer rates of survival weeks. If the tumour has a low potential for the radiotherapy response, but a high potential for metastases, the benefit of radiotherapy will be decreased and the risk of metastasis will increase exponentially, taking into account the fact that rectal cancer rates of survival is a form of local treatment and does not prevent metastases.

It is to be noticed that the data of the genetic studies are inconstant and have not allowed so far the identification of rectal cancer rates of survival genetic marker of predisposition of the rectal tumours to radio-chemotherapy.

Another problem that we would like to analyze is regarded to the attitude towards the patients with an R1 response in the Bazetti classification.

In the treatment guide of the Ministry of Health for colorectal carcinoma in stage I TNM TN0M0it is mentioned that, in carefully selected cases which are correctly staged preoperatively, in centres with experience, one might choose local transanal resection, exclusive radiotherapy or a combination between radiotherapy and limited surgery.

[Survival in a cohort of patients with rectal cancer].

The post-radiotherapy regression R0 and its follow-up wait-and-see has the advantage that the patients are spared the complications of surgery and there are two studies mentioned Habr-Gama et al.

Nevertheless, we must state the fact that the surgical treatment in rectal cancer may assume the following complications: Abdominal perineal resection: Impair of the sexual activity Decrease of the quality of life Para-stomal hernia.

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One must remember that the physiologic mechanisms of defecation are the more affected as the resection descends at the level of the rectum, so that in the case of ultralow resections and in those with colo-anal anastomosis, they are completely disappeared.

Some of these potential complications induce a big discomfort for the patient and produce a degree of invalidity.

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They may represent reasons for accusation of malpraxis in the case of a patient in which the anatomical specimen does no longer contain tumour tissue after radiotherapy, and which in the postoperative period remains one of the downfalls of rectal cancer rates of survival surgery of the rectum. It is a reason why the studies regarding this conservative approach have continued. Therefore, a study from Maas et al. In batch II - 20 patients who completely responded from another batch had resection.

Сомнений быть не могло: ни один человек в городе, имей он даже возможность, не осмелился бы потревожить призраки прошлого, мертвого уже миллионы веков.

Only one patient in batch I presented with local relapse after 25 months, being resolved through surgical treatment. After complete information of the patient regarding the protocol and the surgical complications of the abdominal perineal resection and rectal cancer rates of survival the low and ultralow rectal resections, paraziti in organismul uman 4 patients without parietal lesions and without identifiable nodes post radiotherapy have opted for clinical follow-up, denying the surgical treatment.