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Several conditions are more frequent in pregnancy: appendicitis, cholecystitis, adnexal torsion, adnexal mass, trauma, breast disease, cervical dysplasia or cancer, bowel obstruction. When a pregnant patient has to undergo surgery, the obstetrician, the general surgeon, or the orthopedist, the neurosurgeon as appropriate, together with the anesthetist and the neonatologist must consult each other, establishing the plan of action and performing accordingly.

Among all procedures, abdominal interventions have the most significant impact, either considering laparotomy, or laparoscopy. There are several advantages of laparoscopic surgery during pregnancy: decreased pain, smaller abdominal incisions, smaller scars, fewer incisional hernias, shorter recovery and hospitalization time, early normal bowel function and mobilization.

There are also some possible disadvantages, such as injuring the pregnant uterus, decreasing uterine blood flow by increased intraabdominal pressure or even ovarian cancer intestinal blockage symptoms dioxide absorption by mother and fetus. Data supporting laparoscopy in pregnancy suggest that laparoscopy can be done safely during pregnancy.

Ovarian cancer intestinal blockage symptoms chirurgicală în timpul sarcinii poate fi o provocare, deoarece trebuie avute în vedere atât viaţa mamei, cât şi viabilitatea fătului, iar ambii pot fi afectaţi în timpul acestor proceduri. Câteva jus fruit detoxifiant sunt mai frecvente în timpul sarcinii: apendicita, colecistita, torsiunea anexială, masele anexiale, traumatismele, patologia sânului, displazia cervicală sau cancerul cervical, obstrucţia intestinală.

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Dintre toate procedurile, intervenţiile abdominale au cel mai mare impact, fie că este vorba despre laparotomie sau laparoscopie. Există mai multe avantaje ale chirurgiei laparoscopice în timpul sarcinii: reducerea durerii, incizii mai mici, cicatrice mai mici, hernii incizionale reduse, recuperarea mai scurtă, timpul de spitalizare redus, reluarea precoce wart removal treatment home funcţiei intestinale normale şi mobilizarea timpurie.

Există, de asemenea, posibile dezavantaje, cum ar fi rănirea uterului gravid, scăderea fluxului sanguin uterin prin creşterea presiunii intraabdominale sau chiar absorbţia dioxidului de carbon de către mamă şi făt. Datele din literatură în sprijinul laparo­scopiei sugerează că aceasta se poate face în siguranţă în timpul sarcinii.

Among all procedures, abdominal interventions have the most important impact, either considering laparotomy, or laparoscopy. In the last years, laparoscopy seems to be the treatment of choice in gynecologic pathology during pregnancy, and there is evidence that supports that it is a safe procedure to perform during pregnacy 2, There are also possible some disadvantages, such as injuring the pregnant uterus, decreasing uterine blood flow by increased intraabdominal pressure or even carbon dioxide absorption by mother and fetus.

Technique Because of the enlarged uterus, the placement of the trocars is important for a successful operation. The patient is placed in left side-down ovarian cancer intestinal blockage symptoms.

The access to the abdomen is made through an open technique. Usually, we use 5-mm laparoscopes for the sides and a mm laparoscope superior to the umbilicus. In their study, Carter and Soper used 3-mm laparoscopes superior to the umbilicus on uteri that were at or above the umbilicus 7,8. Uterine manipulation must be minimal and intraperitoneal pressures must be kept below mm Hg 6,9. Tocolytic drugs are recommended to be used in case of uterine manipulation Imaging Ultrasounds.

Adnexal mass are usually discovered at routine ultrasound obstetrical examination. Although there is no evidence of ovarian cancer intestinal blockage symptoms specific use of these criteria in pregnant women, ultrasounds as an examination with high sensitivity and specificity is also very useful during pregnancy Kaijser et al. Magnetic resonance imaging. Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI can be used when ultrasound examination is unclear and there is a high suspicion of malignancy.

Tumor markers. Physiological decidual and amnion cells ovarian cancer intestinal blockage symptoms CA, so the CA level is higher pregnancy.

Still, CA level may help making the difference between benign and malignant tumors. AFP related to germ cell tumorsInhibine B and AMH related to granulosa cell tumors levels are higher in pregnacy and are used ovarian cancer intestinal blockage symptoms follow-up 12, Adnexal torsion Ovarian torsion, also known as adnexal torsion or tubo-ovarian torsion, refers to an emergency condi­tion where the rotation of the ovary and portion of the fallopian tube on the supplying vascular pedicle can compromise the blood supply.

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The result can be arterial, venous and lymphatic stasis, leading to ovarian and fallopian tube necrosis. Either intermittent, or sustained stasis, ovarian cancer intestinal blockage symptoms diagnostic and laparoscopy are important in order to preserve the adnexa.

Hypermobility of the ovary and adnexal mass are the two main reason of adnexal tor­sion Dermoid cysts and para ovarian cysts are frequently incriminated, and at most risk are masses between cm Adnexal torsion mainly occurs during the first trimester of pregnancy In pregnacy, adnexal torsion can occur as a complication of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome 22, Shalev et al.

There is a common trend to consider laparoscopy the treatment of choice in adnexal torsion, being a safe procedure if special precautions are adhered to. Depending on the size of the cyst and the gestation age, aspiration, detorsion and subsequent cystectomy can be practiced. Adnexal mass The reported incidence of adnexal mass complicating pregnancy is about 0. Benign adnexal masses discovered during early pregnancy can be: functional cyst corpus luteum, follicular cyst, haemorrhagic cystdermoid cyst, serous cystadenoma, mucinous cystadenoma, endometrioma, leiomyomas, and paraovarian cyst Corpus luteum cysts and benign cystic teratomas has each one third 32, Cystic masses are conservative treated till the second trimester or even after delivery.

Depending on evolution of the cyst, measures must be taken. Often, there is a spontaneous resolution of functional cysts 34, If masses persist or grow larger, they must be removed ovarian cancer intestinal blockage symptoms order to prevent torsion or rupture.

Non-functional cyst usually persists after 16 weeks of gestation 13,30,36, In cases where there is no need for surgical treatment during pregnancy, only survey is sufficient till delivery.

Otherwise, laparoscopic procedure should optimally ovarian cancer intestinal blockage symptoms done between 16 and 20 weeks of gestation 27, Suspicious features like vascula­rized septa, solid components, papillae or nodules require further investigation through Magnetic Resonance Imaging and tumour markers analyzes Although ovarian cancer during pregnancy is rare, any sign of malignancy must be taken into consideration and appropriate treatment must be applied.

The termination of pregnancy is indicated in early pregnancy, and chemotherapy can be safely used during second ovarian cancer intestinal blockage symptoms third trimesters.

Conclusions Gynecological disorders during pregnancy such as ovarian cysts and masses must first be thoroughly assessed by ultrasound examination and, if the situation requires, by MRI examination, safely done during the second and the third trimesters.

Also, CA level may be useful in distinguishing a benign from malignant disease. The hpv virus detection of surgery is an important aspect. Small benign painless cysts ovarian cancer intestinal blockage symptoms only be under surveillance as they may spontaneously remit, and large cysts or cysts that last over 16 weeks should be reassessed and undergo surgery.

When a pregnant patient has to undergo surgery, the obstetrician, the general surgeon, or the orthopedist, the neurosurgeon as appropriate, together with the anesthetist and the neonatologist must consult each other and take a decision.

Laparoscopic gynecological procedures during pregnancy

There are several advantages of laparoscopic surgery during pregnancy: decreased pain, smaller abdominal incisions, smaller scars, fewer incisio­nal hernias, shorter recovery and hospitalization time, early normal bowel function and mobilization. Condylomata acuminata gigantea are also possible some disadvantages, such as injuring the pregnant uterus, decreasing uterine blood flow by increased intraabdominal pressure or ovarian cancer intestinal blockage symptoms carbon dioxide­ absorption by mother and fetus.

Adnexal torsion and benign ovarian cysts and masses can be safely operated during first and second trimester. Mazze RI, Källén B. Reproductive outcome after anesthesia and operation during pregnancy: a registry study of cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol ; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy during pregnancy: a case series and review of the literature.

Obstet Gynecol Surv. Carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum induces fetal acidosis in a pregnant ewe model. Ovarian cancer intestinal blockage symptoms Endosc.

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Laparoscopy during Pregnancy. A survey of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons. J Reprod Med. Laparoscopy during pregnancy: a study of five fetal outcome parameters with use of the Swedish Health Registry.

Am J Obstet Gynecol. Fetal risk of anesthesia and surgery during pregnancy. Anesthesiology, ; Laparoscopy vs. Laparoscopy Today. March Hemodynamic effects of pneumoperitoneum during gynecologic laparoscopic surgery. J Gynecol Surg. Laparoscopy in pregnancy. Ovarian cancer intestinal blockage symptoms cancers in pregnancy: guidelines of a second international consensus meeting.

Int J Gynecol Cancer. Presurgical diagnosis of adnexal tumours using mathematical models and scoring systems: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update.

Evaluation and management of adnexal masses during pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynecol.

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Leiserowitz G. Managing ovarian masses during pregnancy.

Proceduri ginecologice laparoscopice în timpul sarcinii

Clinical, surgical and pathologic findings of adnexal torsion in pregnant and nonpregnant women. Surg Gynecol Obstet. Dähnert W. Radiology Review Manual.

Hubsta Ltd, Amirbekian S, Hooley RJ. Ultrasound Evaluation of Pelvic Pain. North Am. Hibbard, LT. Adnexal torsion. Comparison of adnexal torsion between pregnant and nonpregnant women.

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The clinical characteristics and sonographic findings of maternal ovarian torsion in pregnancy. Fertil Steril. Clinical, surgical and pathologic findings of adnexal torsion in pregnant and non-pregnant women.

Rackow B and Patrizio P. Successful pregnancy complicated by early and late adnexal torsion after in vitro fertilization. Garzarelli S, Marruca N. One laparoscopic puncture for treatment of ovarian cysts with adnexal torsion in early pregnancy. A report of two cases. J Reprod Med ; — Adnexal torsion of hyperstimulated ovaries in pregnancies after gonadotropin therapy. Fertil Steril ; 76— Laparoscopic relief of ovarian cancer intestinal blockage symptoms torsion in early pregnancy.

Br J Obstet Gynaecol ; — Shalev E, Peleg D.

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Laparoscopic treatment of adnexal torsion. Surg Gynecol Obstet ; — Shalev E. Laparoscopic unwinding of hyperstimulated ovaries during the second trimester of pregnancy [lettr]. Hum Reprod ; Hoover K, Jenkins Ovarian cancer intestinal blockage symptoms. Evaluation and management of adnexal mass in pregnancy. Runowicz CD, Brewer M. Adnexal mass in pregnancy. MRI of adnexal masses in pregnancy.

Adnexal masses in the pregnant patient: a diagnostic and management challenge. Ultrasound Q. Parsons AK.

  • Ghidul clinic pentru obstetrică şi ginecologie pe tema cancerului ovarian precizează standardele, principiile şi aspectele fundamentale ale conduitei particularizate unui caz concret clinic, care trebuie respectată de practicieni indiferent de nivelul unităţii sanitare în care activează.
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  • Но нет, не успели они приблизиться, как камень начал крошиться.

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  • Он повернулся было к Хилвару, ища поддержки.

Imaging the human corpus luteum.

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