Frequently, a mandible resection is required in order to obtain safe oncologic margins.
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The prognosis is good, with a higher overall survival rate than in other oral malignancies. Keywords carcinoma, floor of the mouth, mandible resection, neck dissection Rezumat Cu o prevalenţă inferioară tumorilor maligne ale limbii, tumorile maligne de planşeu anterior impun o abordare chirurgicală la fel de radicală, cu o margine de siguranţă mare şi cu managementul problemelor de la nivelul gâtului.
Datorită localizării lor anterioare, sunt mai uşor de diagnosticat, iar pacientul se prezintă şi în stadii incipiente, nu doar în stadii tardive.
Frecvent, este necesară rezecţia mandibulei, pentru a obţine margini de siguranţă oncologică. Prognosticul este bun, cu o supravieţuire generală mai mare decât în cazul altor malignităţi orale. Cuvinte cheie carcinom planşeu oral rezecţie de mandibulă evidare cervicală Introduction Oral cancer is the most encountered tumor in head and neck region.
Treatment of anterior floor of the mouth carcinomas
It usually affects male patients in their 6th decade of life 1a possible explanation for this gender imbalance being related to smoking and drinking, which are more frequent in men. It is age-related, the 5th and 6th decade of life seems to be the most encountered, but in the last years there is a growing tendency in younger adults years old, hpv mouth and throat cancer Also, strong relations are emerging concerning HPV infection and oral carcinoma, especially the 16th subtype seems to be involved in cancer pathology 2.
What is sure is that HPV in oncologic patients is a negative prognosis factor.
Diagnosis Before developing cancer tumors, patients can present with mucosal lesions such as leukoplakia, erythroplakia or a combination of the two. Sometimes the onset is missed by the doctor or the patient, as it can mimic numerous benign conditions, but as it develops, the signs of malignancy are more pronounced solid mass, infiltrative, ulcerated lesionand it will generally present in one of the two main stages: exophytic or endophytic.
For radiological assessment of the cancer patients, the most implied methods are CT hpv mouth and throat cancer for bony invasion and MRI for muscles involvement and to accurately determine the cervical metastasis.
PET-CT is a more advanced type of tissue scanning, better suited for preoperative staging, although with a higher cost than normal scans, and it gives clinicians more precise information 4.
Tratamentul carcinoamelor de planşeu oral anterior
Cervical metastasis, due to a higher intake of glucose, can be easier detected, as many PET diagnosed occult metastases proved to be malignant at the histological HP report, but sometimes negative masses in PET scan were also found to be positive cancer orofaringe tratamento the HP examination.
It is not a total bullet proof investigation, but is a powerful tool when dealing with cancer patients. The treatment implies a surgical phase hpv mouth and throat cancer adjuvant oncological therapy. Even late stages can be surgically cured and the remaining defects reconstructed with the aid of free flaps.
The prognosis depends on the negative resection margins 6thus having a safe oncological margin of more than 5 mm and lack of margin dysplasia.
Because there are situated in the proximity of the lingual cortex, in many cases an en bloc mandible resection should be performed even in earlier stages. Usually, a continuity sparing resection is performed; a segmental resection in moderate stages would not grant an extra benefit regarding the oncologic prognosis, but hpv mouth and throat cancer will inflict a greater impairment for the patient due to muscle attachment loss 7. In early stages, the cervical metastases are not that frequent, but in advanced tumors the neck must be carefully checked.
When the diagnosis is N0 for cervical metastasis, depending on the tumor pattern, an elective neck dissection can be performed SOH dissectionconsidered to have the same benefits as a radical dissection 8.
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Most of the cervical metastases are found in the first three lymphatic levels, so a Hpv mouth and throat cancer neck dissection will hpv mouth and throat cancer a proper outcome. Adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy are performed when positive margins are found, or the tumor has a vascular or neural proliferation.
Regarding the cervical metastases, adjuvant therapy is applied when there is a positive carcinoma involvement, irrespective of capsule integrity 9. Radiotherapy as first therapy is employed in advanced stages where surgical cure cannot be performed, as a palliative treatment or for tumor conversion.
Case 1 Figure 1. Case 1. Above — anterior FOM tumor. Below left — CT scan, no bony invasion.
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Below right —month check up, no relapse A year-old patient presented for a floor of the mouth FOM swelling, with a 3-month duration. The patient had an ulcerated fixed tumor mass with irregular shape and borders, with pain on palpation, without any clinical signs of cervical metastasis. A biopsy was taken squamous carcinoma and an en bloc resection with marginal mandible resection was performed, with primary closure.
At the month follow-up, no sign of relapse was noted locally and cervical.
- According to some recent studies, the HPV infection may also increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
- hhh | Cervical Cancer | Oral Sex
Case 2 Figure 2A. Case 2. Above left — anterior FOM tumor. Right — cervical metastasis Figure 2B. Above — intraoperative photo: neck dissection. Below — intraoperative photo with the reconstructed defect with lingual flap A year-old patient was sent to our department by an ENT colleague for an anterior FOM mass with cervical lymph node involvement. CT scan showed an anterior FOM hpv mouth and throat cancer without bony invasion, but in close contact with the mandible, and left cervical metastasis.
A biopsy was performed — squamous cell carcinoma.
An intraoral en bloc resection was performed with mandible partial resection and neck dissection, primary closure with lingual flap. Adjuvant oncologic treatment was performed. The patient is tumor-free after 18 months.
Case 3 Figure 3.
Case 3. Below left — anterior FOM tumor. Below centre — the defect. Below right — intraoperative photo with the reconstructed defect with lingual flap A year-old patient was sent to our department by the general practitioner for an anterior FOM mass, recently developed.
The CT scan showed an anterior FOM mass, with muscle involvement, without bone hpv vaccine side effects reviews, without node metastasis. A pull-through approach was performed, with en bloc resection, with mandible marginal resection, bilateral SOH neck dissection, primary closure with lingual flap.
The patient is tumor-free after 12 months.
Conclusions Early stage anterior FOM carcinoma without lymph node involvement can be safely managed with intraoral surgical resection and primary closure or reconstruction with local flaps.
In late disease, the approach is hpv mouth and throat cancer oral and cervical, hpv mouth and throat cancer cervical by pull-through procedure, addressing the tumor and the lymph nodes. Adjuvant oncologic treatment is performed, respective of node involvement and tumor pattern and margins.
Conflict of interests: The authors declare no conflict of interests. Criteria to rationalize population screening to control oral cancer. Oral Oncol. Human papillomavirus types in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas worldwide: a systematic review.
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NCCN practice guidelines for head and neck cancers. Oncology Williston Park. Marginal and segmental mandibulectomy in patients with oral cancer: a statistical analysis of cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. Efficacy of supraomohyoid neck dissection in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and negative neck. Am J Surg. Yeh SA.
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Radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Semin Plast Surg. Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and floor of the mouth: analysis of survival rate and hpv mouth and throat cancer prognostic factors in the Amazon region. J Craniofac Surg. Age-period-cohort analysis hpv mouth and throat cancer oral cancer mortality in Europe: the end of an epidemic?