How do you get the human papillomavirus

how do you get the human papillomavirus
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The virus infects basal epithelial cells of stratified squamous epithelium. HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins are the critical molecules in the process of malignant tumour formation.

Interacting with various cellular proteins, E6 and E7 influence fundamental cellular how do you get the human papillomavirus like cell cycle regulation, telomere maintenance, susceptibility to apoptosis, intercellular adhesion and regulation of immune responses.

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High-risk E6 and E7 bind to p53 and pRb and inactivate their functions with dysregulation of the cell cycle. Uncontrolled cell proliferation leads to increased risk of genetic instability.

На нем появилась чаша с экзотическими фруктами. Это была отнюдь не та пища, которую он намеревался вызвать, - сказывалось его смятенное состояние. Не желая выдавать ошибку, он взял наименее опасно выглядевший плод и осторожно надкусил. - Ну, - сказала Алистра наконец, - и как ты собираешься - Я ничего не могу поделать, - ответил он угрюмо.

Usually, it takes decades for cancer to develop. This review presents the main mechanisms of HPV genome in the carcinogenesis retete shake detoxifiere the uterine cervix.

Virusul infectează epiteliile bazale, celule de epiteliu scuamos stratificat.

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Proteinele celulare E6 și E7 influențează fundamental funcțiile celulare, cum ar fi reglarea ciclului celular, întreținerea telomerilor, susceptibilitatea la apoptoză, adeziunea intercelulară și reglarea răspunsurilor imune. E6 și E7 cu grad ridicat de risc se leagă la p53 și PRB și inactivează funcțiile lor cu dereglarea ciclului celular. Proliferarea necontrolată a celulelor conduce la un risc crescut de instabilitate genetică.

De obicei, este nevoie de zeci de ani pentru a dezvolta un cancer.

Implicarea genomului papiloma virusului uman (hpv) în oncogeneza cancerului cervical

Acest review prezintă principalele mecanisme ale genomului How do you get the human papillomavirus în carcinogeneza colului uterin.

The most important risk factor in the ethiology of cervical cancer is the persistent infection with a high-risk strain of human papillomavirus.

Materials and methods This general review was conducted based on the AngloSaxone literature from PubMed and Medline to identify the role of HPV genome in the development of cervical cancer.

Discussions Genital human papillomavirus HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection.

Article Recommendations Abstract Background. Medical research has shown a continuous increase in the incidence of skin cancers, especially among young individuals.

Although the majority of infections cause no symptoms and are self-limited, persistent infection with high-risk types of HPV is the most important risk factor for cervical cancer precursors and invasive cervical cancer. The presence of HPV in How do you get the human papillomavirus are also responsible for others genital neoplasias like vaginal, vulvar, anal, and penian.

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HPV is a non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus from the family of Papillomaviridae, with an 8 kb circular genome composed of six early ORFs open reading frames with role in viral transcription and replication E1, E2, E4, E5, E6, E7two late ORFs L1,2-capsid proteins and a non-coding long controlled region LCR that contains a variety of cis elements, which regulate viral replication and gene expression.

More than HPV types have been identified, and how do you get the human papillomavirus 40 can infect the genital tract. Based on their association with cervical cancer and precursor lesions, HPVs are grouped to high-risk 16, 18, 31, 33, 34, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 73, 82 and low-risk HPV types 6, 11, 42, 43,  44, 54, 61, 70, 72, Natural history Most genital HPV infections are benign, subclinical, and self-limited, and a high proportion of infections associated with low-grade cervical dysplasias also regress spontaneously 1.

how do you get the human papillomavirus

By contrast, persistent cervical infection infection detected more than once in an interval of 6 months or longer with an oncogenic HPV type, especially HPV 16 and HPV 18, is the most important risk factor for progression to high-grade dysplasia, a precancerous lesion that should be treated to prevent the development of invasive cancer 2. HPV is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for the development of cervical cancer.

Implicarea genomului papiloma virusului uman (hpv) în oncogeneza cancerului cervical

Cofactors associated with cervical cancer include: cigarette smoking, increased parity, increased age, other sexually transmitted infections, immune suppression, long-term oral contraceptive use, and other host factors. Figure 1.

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Schematic representation of the HPV double-stranded circular DNA genome Journal of Virology Nov HPV integration into the host genome and Papillomavirus life cycle To establish infection, the virus must infect basal epithelial cells of stratified squamous epithelium, that how do you get the human papillomavirus long lived or have stem cell-like properties.

Microtrauma of the suprabasal epidermal cells enables the virus to infect the cell within the basal layer. Once inside the host cell, HPV DNA replicates as the basal cells differentiate and progress to the surface of the epithelium. The viral genome maintains itself as an episome in basal cells, where the viral genes are poorly expressed.

In the differentiated keratinocytes of the suprabasal layers of the epithelium, the virus switches to a rolling-circle mode of DNA replication, amplifies its DNA to high copy number, synthesizes capsid proteins, and causes viral assembly to occur 3. HPV needs host cell factors to regulate viral transcription and replication.

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Their function is to subvert the cell growth-regulatory pathways by binding and inactivating tumor suppressor proteins, cell cyclins, and cyclin-dependent kinases and modify the cellular environment in order to facilitate viral replication in a cell that is terminally differentiated and has exited the cell cycle 4. Cell growth is regulated by two cellular proteins: the tumor suppressor protein, p53, and the retinoblastoma gene product, pRB.

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Unlike in many other cancers, the p53 in cervical cancer is usually wild type and is not mutated. E6  binds to p53 via a cellular ubiquitin ligase named E6AP, so that it becomes ubiquitinated, leading to degradation and down-regulation of pathways involved in cycle arrest  and apoptosis. This degradation has the same effect as an inactivating mutation.

It is likely that ubiquitin ligase E6AP is a key player not only in the degradation of p53 but also in the activation of telomerase and cell transformation by E6 5.

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